Making this quantitative point is impossible without control over both particle energy and magnetic field, so this will need to be stated if your demo doesnt have both of these. Cathode rays are now usually called electron beams. Contents 1 Description 2 History 2.1 Gas discharge tubes 2.2 Cathode rays 2.3 Discovery of the electron 2.4 Vacuum tubes 3 Properties of cathode rays 4 See also 5 References 6 External links 6.1 Animations and Simulations . Keithley The story of electrical and magnetic measurements: from 500 B.C. Louis de Broglie later (1924) showed in his doctoral dissertation that electrons are in fact much like photons in the respect that they act both as waves and as particles in a dual manner as Einstein had shown earlier for light.
In 1869, German physicist Johann Hittorf was first to realize that something must be traveling in straight lines from the cathode to cast the shadows. When they struck it they knocked many electrons out of the metal. We now know that the mysterious cathode rays are in fact electronsand we can use magnets to bend their path. At this time, atoms were the smallest particles known, and were believed to be indivisible. This process is called fluorescence. Discovery of the electron. When they reached the anode end of the tube, they were traveling so fast that, although they were attracted to it, they often flew past the anode and struck the back wall of the tube. The electric field of the wires deflects some of the electrons, preventing them from reaching the anode. The faster the motion of the particle, the larger the circle traced out for a given field or, conversely, the larger the field needed for a given radius of curvature of the beam. When the magnet is reversed, it bends the rays down, so the shadow is lower.
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